Below is this year’s WAEC syllabus for Woodwork. Note that this syllabus is for both Internal and external candidates.
The course in Woodwork at the Senior High School level is to enable students gain knowledge in the art and craft of woodworking and provide with basic and necessary skills for technological growth. At this level, the knowledge to be acquired will act as an avenue for further growth during and after school.
It is intended to give candidates the opportunity to display detailed knowledge of, and skills in
(1) technical drawing and designing;
(2) practical work;
(3) methods and principles of construction;
(4) quality control, estimation and costing.
Candidates are expected to demonstrate
(1) creative ability, mental and practical skills in the use of hand and machine tools for the construction of basic items in wood and related materials;
(2) good basic knowledge of design and reading of working drawings;
(3) ability to plan and follow a sequence of work operations which are necessary to lead to successful completion of projects;
(4) awareness of problems relating to wood and the wood industry.
(5) functional skills capable of providing a means of livelihood in woodworking.
(1) Candidates should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of:
(a) terminologies used in woodwork;
(b) materials used in woodwork;
(c) care and maintenance of handtools and machines;
(d) safety precautions at the workshop;
(e) principles of designing and drawing;
(f) methods and principles of construction.
(2) Candidates should be able to demonstrate the ability to:
(a) follow a given design brief to produce working drawings;
(b) interpret working drawings;
(c) use tools, equipment and materials to carry out practical operations in
(d) prepare surfaces and apply appropriate finishes.
(3) Candidates should be able to:
(a) compare features of different items and make comments or judgment, contrast, justify, support or criticize a job;
(b) write appraisal report on artefacts.
STRUCTURE AND SCHEME OF EXAMINATION
There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3 all of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 will
be a composite paper to be taken at one sitting.
PAPER 1: Will consist of forty multiple-choice objective questions all of which must be
answered within 40 minutes for 40 marks.
PAPER 2: Will consist of theory and design paper of two sections, Sections A and B, to be
taken within 2 hours, 20 minutes.
Section A will be short structured questions put into three parts, Parts I, II and
III as follows:
- Part I will be for candidates in Ghana only.
- Part II will be for candidates in Nigeria, Sierra Leone and The Gambia.
- Part III will be for all candidates. It will comprise of two questions out of which all candidates will be required to answer one.
Section B will comprise design and drawing questions, all of which must be
answered within 1 hour 40 minutes for 40 marks.
PAPER 3: Will be a practical test lasting 3 hours. Candidates will be required to make
a test piece for which the appropriate drawings will be supplied. It will carry
- The practical activities would require the use of
(1) common hand tools;
(2) portable power tools and basic woodworking machines;
(3) different joints and shapes;
(4) nails, screws and other means of fastening.
- Candidates will be required to work from dimensioned sketches,
written descriptions or scaled drawings. They are expected to be able to construct the following joints:
(a) widening joints – e.g. plain/simple butt, dowelled, tongue and grooved, rebated butt, loose tongue, slot screw.
(b) angle joints – for box-like construction, e.g. common and lapped dovetail, pin/comb/finger, dowel, housing, halving and plain mitre.
(c) Framing joints – e.g. Mortice and tenon, bridle, mitre, dowel and halving.
(d) Candidates will also be expected to be able to perform the following operations:
(i) shaping – e.g chamfering, rounding, tapering, beveling, and splaying;
(ii) assembling and finishing – e.g testing for squareness, parallelism, use of diagonals, trial assembly, cramping, preparation of surfaces, application of finishes.
|T O P I C||N O T E S|
|1. WORKSHOP SAFETY
1.1 Personal Safety Types of safety measures and reasons for their observance.
Uses of safety equipment; first aid box and its use. Saftey to prevent injury to self and others in the workshop, wearing of protective clothing (e.g goggles, aprons/overalls, masks, boots, helmets, gloves, respirators).
1.2 Safety relating to hand tools, Safety measures in relation to the
machines and workshop use of hand tools, machines,
environment. electrical appliances; state of
workshop environment, e.g.
lighting, ventilation, exit doors.
1.3 Safety devices knowledge of types of safety devices and their uses, e.g. fire extinguishers, push stick, push block, jigs, fences.
1.4 First Aid (a) Knowledge of the contents of a First Aid box (i.e lint, scissors, bandages, plaster, methylated spirit, iodine, cotton wool, forceps).
(b) Knowledge of the procedure for administration of first aid for cuts, burns, and electric shock.
2.1 Hand Tools Identification, classification, sketching, sharpening, maintenance, storage, safety and use of the following:-
(a) Measuring and marking-out tools: rules, calipers, gauges.
(b) Cutting and shaping tools: saws, planes, chisels, spokeshaves.
(c) Abrading and scraping tools: files, scrapers.
(d) Boring tools – braces, bits, drills, gimlet, bradawl.
(e) Percussion and impelling tools: hammers, screwdrivers, mallet.
(f) Holding and suppoting tools: cramps, cutting-board, vices, pincers.
2.2 Portable Power Identification, maintenance, safety and Tools uses of the following:-
(a) Planes – power hand planer, router
(b) Saws – Jig saw, circular saw.
(c) Sanders – orbital sander, belt sander, drum sander, disc sander.
(d) Hand drill;
(e) Spray gun.
2.3 Special Purpose Identification, classification, sketching, Hand Tools maintenance, safety, and uses of the following:
(a) Planes: plough plane, compass plane, router plane.
(b) Saws: coping saw, fret saw, bow saw, compass saw, pad saw, junior hacksaw.
(c) Boring bits: expansion bit,
Forstner bit, countersink bit, auger bit, centre bit, gimlet, brawdal, twist drill.
(d) Shapers: scrapers, rasps, surform,
3.1 Types of Machines Identification, functions of parts, uses and safety precautions relating to the listed machines:
(a) Grinding wheel.
(b) Circular saw bench, cross-cut
saw, bandsaw, dimension saw.
(c) Surfacer or jointer, thicknesser.
(d) Chain, chisels, horizontal borer.
(e) Lathe, spindle moudler, drum sander, jig saw, router.
(f) Drilling machine.
3.2 Safety Aids Uses of guards, jigs, fences, push sticks, push blocks, gauges.
4.1.1 Classification (i) Hardwoods and softwoods
(ii) Differences between hardwoods and structure.
4.1.2 Parts of a tree (i) Identification and functions of the
parts of a growing treee, i.e roots,
trunk and crown.
(ii) Identification and functions of
the cross-sectional parts of a
tree, i.e bark, bast, cambium
layer, annual/growth rings,
medullary rays, sapwood,
heartwood and pith.
(iii) Effects of the characteristics of
the cross-sectional parts of a
tree on timber for woodwork.
4.1.3 Surface quality of timber Identification of timber by the
(i) grain (i.e straight, inter-lock,
wavy, diagonal, etc.).
4.1.4 Mechanic Definition of the following properties:
properties hardness, strength (i.e tensile,
compressive and shear), elasticity,
4.1.5. Conversion of timber Description and sketching of the
following methods of conversion:
(i) plain/through and through/live
(ii) tangential/back/flat/rake sawing;
(iii) quarter/radial/rift sawing;
(iv) boxed-heart sawing.
4.1.6 Marketable size Identification and sketching of the
following marketable sizes:
Log, baulk, plank, strip, batten,
square, scantling, flitch, board.
4.1.7 Seasoning Description of the following methods
(i) natural or open air seasoning;
(ii) artificial or kiln seasoning;
(iii) water seasoning;
(iv) chemical seasoning.
4.1.8 Determination of moisture Description of the following methods
content of determining moisture content:
(i) oven dry method;
(ii) moisture meter method.
4.1.9 Wood Preservation (i) Reasons for preserving timber;
(ii) Types of preservatives – tar oil,
water borne, organic solvent.
(iii) Qualities of an ideal preservative.
(iv) Method of application:
(I) Pressure treatment (i.e full
cell and empty cell);
(II) Non-pressure treatment (i.e
brushing, dippipng, hot and
cold treatment, steeping).
4.1.10 Defects in Timber Identification, causes and sketching
of the following types of defect in timber:
(i) natural defects, e.g. knots, burr, grains.
(ii) defects caused by organisms, e.g
(iii) wood processing defect, e.g.
diagonal grain, upset,
(iv) seasoning defects, e.g splits, warp,
shakes, honey combing, case hardening.
4.1.11 West African Timber (i) Characteristics, similarities and
differences, uses and working qualities of the following West African timbers:
Iroko (Odum), Abura, Mahogany,
Obeche (Wawa), Walnut, Afara, Ebony, Danta, Emery, Shedua, Mansonia, Afromosia (kokrodua), Avodire, Kusia.
(ii) Effects of depletion of timber species
4.1.12 Veneers Identification, description and
sketching of the following:
(i) Methods of production, i.e rotary, slicing, sawing.
(ii)Types of veneers, i.e face, core
and back veneers.
4.1.13 Manufactured boards Identification, description, uses and sketching of: Plywood, blockboard, laminboard, chipboard, particle board, batten board, hardboard, fibre board.
4.2 Surface Decoration Identification and sketching of tools:
identification and description of the following methods of surface
decoration: inlaying, veneering
(hammer and caul, marquetry,
laminated plastics, edging (i.e solid wood, plastics, metals, veneer),
mouldings (i.e round, ovolo, reeding, carvetto/hollow, cyma recta/ogee,
cyma reversa, scotia, bead, fluting), incised and relief carving.
4.3 Non-Wood Material
4.3.1 Metals (i) Classification: ferrous and non-ferrous.
(ii) Types of ferrous metals: low carbon steel dead/mild steel.
(iii) Types of non-ferrous metals:
Aluminium, lead, copper, tin.
(iv) Physical Properties of metals: hardness/softness.
(v) Basic chemical characteristics of
4.3.2 Nails Identification, description, uses and sketching of: French or wire nails; oval wire nails; lost-head nails; panel pin; veneer pin; cut tack; upholstery nails; roofing nails.
4.3.3 Screws Identification, description, uses and sketching of: Countersunk head; raised head; round head; Philip’s head; coach screws.
(i) Types – thermosetting and thermoplastics.
(ii) Differences between the types
and their common properties.
(iii) Items made from the two types of plastics.
(iv) Uses of plastics.
Identification and uses of: opaque, transparent and decorative glasses.
(i) Types – Natural and artificial.
(ii) Differences between the types.
(iii) Uses of leather, e.g furniture, belts, bags.
4.3.7 Abrasives Identification, uses and description of the process of manufacture of glass paper and garnet paper.
4.3.8 Fittings Identification, description, uses and sketching of: locks; hinges; bolts; catches; castors; stays.
4.3.9 Adhesives Identification, characteristics, preparation and application, uses, safety precaution during application of:
(i) Protein: animal, casein.
(ii) Synthetic: urea, phenol, melamine formaldehydes.
(iii) Contact: rubber based (Evostick).
(a) Description of process, tools and materials required for various surface preparation: planning, scraping, sanding, filling, staining, bleaching, spraying and polishing.
Types, characteristics, uses, methods application, safety precautions in the use of the following:-
Paints, vanishes, lacquers, polishes, laminated plastics.
7. METHODS OF Types and description of methods:
SHAPING AND (i) Obtaining sawn shapes from solid
BENDING WOOD wood.
(ii) Shaping by lamination.
(iii) Shaping by curved bending.
8. WOODWORK JOINTS Classification, uses and sketching of the following:-
(a) angle joints – mortice and tenon, dowel, dovetails, housing, halving, comb, plain mitre.
(b) widening joints – dowel, tongue and groove, loose tongue, rebated butt, slot screw, plain butt.
(c) Framing joints:- mortice and tenon, bridle, mitre, dowelled, halving.
9. UPHOLSTERY (a) Tools
Identification, uses and sketching of the following:-
tack hammer, strainer, curved and straight needle, tack remover, stapler, sewing machine, webbing stretcher, ripping chisel.
Types, differences and uses of the following:-
(i) Webbing – twine or cord, thread, spring, jute, hesian or baft.
(ii) Padding – foam, kapok, feathers, coconut fibres.
(iii) Covering – fabric, natural
and artificial leathers.
(iv) Tacking – stud, tack nails.
(c) (i) Upholstery parts – frame, platform, studding/padding,covering.
(ii) Types of platform (fixed and loose) and their uses.
10. DESIGN ANDMAKING (a) Factors Affecting Design – Fitness for purpose, proportion, material, construction, finishing, cost.
(b) (i) Problem identification and writing of brief.
(ii) Stating conditions and constraints relating to suggested solution.
(iii) Writing of specifications (i.e function, materials, construction, cost, ergonomics, aesthetics) for possible solutions.
(c) Generating solutions:
(i) Sources of information to generate ideas in solving problems, e.g. research,
(ii) Preliminary sketches – freehand sketching of designs.
(d) Preparation of Solution:
(i) drawing in isometric view;
(ii) preparation of working drawing in first and third angle orthographic projection;
(iii) preparation of cutting list.
(e) Estimation of the cost of materials.
(f) Making of the artefact:
(i) Preparation of the materials;
(ii) Construction of the artefact:
Working drawings should be related to the artefact constructed;
– Tools are correctly used;
– Appropriate joints are used;
– Sequence of operation are followed;
– Safety precautions are observed;
– Appropriate finishes are applied;
(g) Evaluating the artefact: – the steps are:
(i) purpose of the artefact;
(ii) specifications of artefact;
(iii) whether the artefact serves the
(iv) strengths and weaknesses of artefact;
(v) areas of possible improvement;
(vi) judgment as to whether artefact
is excellent, good, satisfactory, poor.
(a) Estimation, calculations involving linear, area, volume, percentage.
(b) Calculation of unit and total cost of a job.
(c) Explanation of the various elements involved in costing of a job; i.e materials, labour, overhead expenses, packaging, portage, sales expenses, advertising, net profit, tax.
12. WOOD TURNING (a) The lathe – identification and function of parts and accessories: bed, stands, headstock, tailstock, tool rest, centres,face plates.
(b) Wood turning tools: identification uses and sketching of the following:
(i) scraping tools.
(ii) cutting tools.
(c) (i) Types of turning operations: faceplate turning, between centres turning, boring.
(ii) Articles produced from turning operations: flower vase, cup, egg holder, bowl, candle holder, decorative mouldings, Police baton, rolling pin, table legs.
13. MASS PRODUCTION Explanation of stages in mass production:
(a) Preparation of Design and Working drawings.
(b) Preparation of workshop rod/ setting out.
(c) Making of prototype.
(d) Preparation of cutting list.
(e) Preparation of materials.
(f) Marking out using template.
(g) Production of parts – use of jigs; division of labour.
(h) Trial run.
(i) Assembly line – trial assembly
and final assembly.
(j) Application of finishing.
(k) Quality control.
RECOMMENDED TOOLS, MACHINES AND MATERIALS
FOR WOOD WORKSHOP
(1) Rip saw
(2) Cross-cut saw
(3) Panel saw
(4) Tenon saw
(5) Dovetail saw
(6) Coping saw
(7) Pad saw
(8) Firmer chisels, 6mm, 10mm, 12mm, 15mm, 20mm
(9) Bevelled-edge chisels 6mm, 10mm, 12mm,
(10) Mortise chisels, 6mm, 100mm, 12mm, 15mm and 20mm
(11) Gouges (Firmer and Scribing) 6mm, 12mm,
(12) Jack plane (metal)
(13) Smoothing plane (metal)
(14) Plough plane
(15) Rebate plane
(16) Shoulder plane
(17) Block plane
(18) Router plane
(19) Bullnose plane
(20) Compass plane
(21) Spokes have (Round and flat)
(22) Oil stone and slip stones
(23) Oil can
(24) Brace (Ratchet)
(25) Bits (auger, centre, forstner, gimlet, bradawl, countersink sizes 6mm, 10mm,12mm, 20mm
(26) Hand drill
(27) Hand scraper
(28) Folding rule/Tape measure
(29) Marking gauge
(30) Cutting gauge
(31) Mortise gauge
(32) Wing compasses
(33) Marking knife
(34) Sliding bevel
(35) Mitre square
(36) Woodwork bench
(37) Woodwork bench vice
(38) Sash cramps
(40) Rack cramps
(41) Try square
(42) Warrington hammer
(43) Claw hammer
(46) Nail punches
(48) Nail cutter
(49) Glass cutter
- WOODWORKING MACHINES
(1) Cross-cut saw
(2) Circular saw bench
(3) Dimension saw
(4) Band saw
(26) Hand drill
(27) Hand scraper
(28) Folding rule/Tape measure
(29) Marking gauge
(30) Cutting gauge
(31) Mortise gauge
(32) Wing compasses
- PORTABLE POWER TOOLS
(3) Jig saw
(4) Circular saw
(5) Power drill
(6) Sanders (orbital, belt, disc)
(6) Finishes and Thinners
(7) Plywood (different sizes)
(8) Permanent Markers