Welding

Below is this year’s WAEC syllabus for  Welding And Fabrication Engineering Craft Practice. Note that this syllabus is for both Internal and external candidates.

           

 SCHEME OF EXAMINATION

 

There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3, all of which must be taken.

Papers 1 and 2 will be a composite paper to be taken at one sitting.

 

Paper 1:               will consist of forty multiple-choice objective questions all of which are to be answered in 1 hour for 40 marks.

 

Paper 2:               will consist of five questions out of which candidates will be required to answer any four in 1½ hours for 60 marks.

 

Paper 3:               will be practical test of 3 hours, 10 minutes duration.  It will consist of one compulsory question for 100 marks.

 

A list of materials for the test shall be made available to schools not less than two weeks before the paper is taken for material procurement and relevant preparations.

 

 ALTERNATIVE TO PRACTICAL TEST

 

The Council may consider testing candidates’ ability in practical work as prescribed in the syllabus in the event that materials for the actual practical test cannot be acquired.  For this alternative test there will be one question to be answered in 3 hours for 100 marks

 

DETAILED SYLLABUS

 

S/NO. TOPIC CONTENT PRACTICAL
1 Workshop and standard workshop practices. 1.1.           Introduction to fabrication and welding practice.

1.2.           Safety precautions in welding and fabrication workshop.

–          Types and causes of accident in the workshop (fire, explosion, sharp objects, hazardous gases, etc).

–          Accident prevention measures.

–          Types and causes of environmental pollution.

–          Methods of preventing environmental pollution.

–          Safety facilities and protective wears.

1.3.      Workshop layout (fabrication             and welding).

1.4 .     Standard welding codes and             symbols.

1.5.       First-Aid administration in the              workshop.

 

 

1.2.1.   Demonstration of the             use of protective             wears in welding and             fabrication.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.5.1.    Demonstration of the              use of first aid in the              workshop.

2 Properties of metals and selection. 2.1        Ferrous and non-ferrous             metals (steel, aluminum, cast             iron, copper and zinc, tin, alloy              steel).

2.2.       Properties of metals (ductility,              hardness, toughness,              malleability, fusion and              tenacity, brittleness, elasticity              and plasticity).

2.3.      Sheet metal (aluminum, mild             steel, brass)

–   concept of sheet metal

–    gauges of sheet metal

2.4.    Selection of suitable metals for           specific jobs.

2.1.1     Identification of              ferrous and non-             ferrous metals.
2.5      Heat treatment of metals           (hardening, annealing,            normalizing, tempering and            case- hardening, etc.)  

 

2.5.1.   Annealing,             Hardening and              Normalizing of metals

3 Tools and Equipment in Fabrication and Welding. 3.1.     Identification of tools and            equipment for fabrication and            welding.

3.2.     Equipment set-up for gas, arc            welding and fabrication.

3.3.     Job holding devices for            fabrication and welding.

3.4.     Measuring instruments,            marking out and cutting tools.

 

 

3.5.     Identification of parts and            accessories for gas and arc            welding.

 

3.6.     Maintenance procedure for arc            and gas (oxy-acetylene)           welding equipments.

3.7.     Preparation of acetylene gas            from carbide.

3.8.     Types of electrodes and their                              composition, their application,             gauges of electrodes, selection             of appropriate electrode for a             specific job.

3.9.      Equipment for fault detection             and trouble shooting in                          fabrication and welding.

3.1.1.   Student to set up oxy              – acetylene equipment

 

 

 

 

 

3.4.1.   Demonstration of the             use of measuring,             marking out and             cutting tools.

3.5.1.   Demonstration of the             preparation of                           ace-tylene gas from             carbide.

4 Operations and Techniques in Welding and Fabrication. 4.1.      Types of welding (Gas and Arc             welding), explanation of the             principles of gas and arc             welding and their differences

 

4.2.     Description of a typical            fabrication process.

4.3.     Types of joints, joint methods             and application in welding and             fabrication

4.4.     Classification of marking out            techniques in welding and            fabrications.

4.5.     Description of the use of            templates for fabricated and            welded assemblies.

4.6.     Welding techniques and            application.

 

4.7.     Techniques in fabrication work

–   Description of folding                techniques and its                importance in fabrication                work.

 

 

4.3.1.   Demonstration of             various jobs cutting             techniques.

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.6.1.   Students to weld using             both leftward and             rightward methods.

4.7.1.   Students to work on             wire-edge projects.

5 Fasteners

(a)    Classification of         fasteners.

(b)    Rivet and its        application

(c)    Bolt and nuts

(d)    Screws

5.1.    Permanent fasteners.

5.2.    Temporary fasteners.

5.3.     Types of rivets.

5.4.      Uses of rivets.

5.5.      Description of bolts and nuts.

5.6.      Uses of bolts and nuts

5.7.      Classes of rivets and screws.

 

 

5.4.1.   Students to produce              rivets joints.

5.5.1.    Students to produce              bolts and nuts.

6 Forging Process

– Introduction to forging

6.1.      Definition of forging

6.2.      Forging tools and equipment            (furnace, swages, fullers,             flatters and tongs).

6.3.    Forging process

–  upsetting.

–  drawing down

–  twisting

–  bending

–  forging an eye.

 

 

 

 

6.3.1.   Students to form an              eye.

7 Preparation of welding surfaces and environment. 7.1.    Preparation of welding surfaces           by cleaning with wire brush,           emery cloth, files, scrappers and
          grinding machine.

7.2.    Preparation of edges for welding           e.g. single V, double V, fillets.

7.3.    Post surface preparation

–  cleaning surface with wire              brush

–  oiling surface to protect from              corrosion or rusting.

7.4.       Defect in welding surfaces                               (causes and remedies).

7.5.      Definition of welding                        environment

–  awkward, unventilated,                flammable material

–  slipery floor (oil/grease on                 floor)

7.6.          Surface furnishing for                 fabrication and welding                 (painting, metal spraying,                 galvanizing and oiling).

 

7.2.1.    Preparation of single              V surface for               welding.

8 Practical Work/Project 8.1.    Marking of shapes (triangle,           square and rectangle).

8.2.    Cutting and bending of triangles,           square and rectangles.

8.3.    Soldering of sheet metals

8.4.    Welding of steel using arc           welding.

8.5.    Welding of steel using gas           welding.

8.6.    Fabrication of ferrous and non-          ferrous metals into required           shapes.

8.7     Suggested projects (students to            produce the following):

–  named plate

–  trinket box

–  funnel

–  kitchen stool

–  car stopper

–  metal rake

               –  scoop

–  hinges

–  charcoal stove, etc.

 
9 Business Entrepreneurship Opportunity 9.1.    Definition of

–  entrepreneurship

–  employer

–  employee.

9.2     Enterprises

–  small scale enterprise

–  medium scale enterprise

–  large scale enterprise

9.3.    Factors for setting a workshop           (cost, site, weather, material,           manpower, market, source of           power, transportations.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9.3.1.   Site visitations to              existing enterprise               (small, medium or               large scale               enterprise)

 

LIST OF FACILITIES AND MAJOR EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS REQUIRED:

 

S/N   QTY S/N   QTY S/N   QTY S/N   QTY
1 Hammers

(various types)

20 17 Bending rollers 1 33 Combined set of cutting

welding outfits

5 48 Bench grinding Machine 2
2 Try squares 20 18 Bench mounted cone roller 1 34 Regulators with flow meters 6 49 Electrode Holders 10
3 Chisels 15 19 Bench shares 2  

35

 

Water to carbide generator

 

1

50 Electrode drying oven 1
4 Punches 15 20 Power hacksaw 1 51 Pillar Drilling Machine 2
5 Hand gloves 30 21 Vee blocks 5 36 Anvil 3 52 Smith open forge 1
6 Straight edges 20 22 Aprons 50 37 Swage block 1 53 Vice (bench) 20
7 Trammel drivers 5 23 O2 CYLINDERS 3 38 Chipping hammers 10 54 Bench type grinding Machine 2
8 Left and right snips 20 24 Transformers with rectifiers 5 39 Flatters 5 55 Double ended buffer and polisher 1
9 Straight snips 15 25 Hand shield and Head caps 10 each 40 Mole grip 5 56 Blow pipes (low and high pressure) 2
10 Rule, Scriber and dividers 20 each 26 Gas welding goggles 10 41 Sledge Hammers 5 57 Files assorted 100
11 Hand nibbling machine 5 27 Double cylinder Trolley 5 42 Plain goggles 20 58 Acetylene Cylinder 3
12 Wire brushes 50 28 Oxygen regulators 5 43 G – clamp 5 50 Parallel Clamp 5
13 Pliers-assorted 20 29 Acetylene regulators 5 44 First-aid box 2 60 Toolmakers clamp 5
14 Tongs Assorted 15 30 Hoses, Clips and all attachments accessories  

10

45 Magnetic clamp 2 61 Mallets 5
15 Hacksaws and blades 60 31 DC generators with all connections 5 46 Self grip pliers 5 62 Work bench 10
16 Guillotine 1 32 AC Transformers 5 47 Folding bars 2 63 Fire Extinguisher 4
                  64 Sand bucket 4
                  65 Cramp Folding Machine 20
                  66 Riveting Pliers 5
                  67 Riveting set 2

 

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

 

S/NO. BOOKS AUTHOR
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Welding and Fabrication

The Science and Practice of Welding

Fabrication and Welding

Basic Welding

The Theory and Practice of Metalwork

Metal Craft Theory and Practice

Metalwork Motivate Series

W. Kenyon

A. C. Davis

F. J. M. Smith

P. Somsky

George Love

John R. Bedford

J. K. N. Sackey & S. K. Amoakohene

8

9

10

Metalwork Technology

Workshop Processes and Materials

Ilesanmi Metalwork for Senior Secondary School Books 1 – 3

G. H. Thomas

J. V. Courtney

Adejuyigbe S. B. and

S. K. Akinlosose

11 Practical Welding  Motivate Series S. W. Gibson and

B. K. Amoako-Awuah

 

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