Below is this year’s WAEC syllabus for Basic Electricity/ Applied Electricity . Note that this syllabus is for both Internal and external candidates.
This examination syllabus has been evolved from the Senior Secondary School Electricity curriculum. It is designed to test candidates’ knowledge and understanding of electrical and electronic principles, maintenance and repair of domestic and industrial equipment and safe working procedures. The examination syllabus does not replace the curriculum.
The objective of the syllabus is to test candidates’:
- knowledge and understanding of the basic concepts and principles of Basic Electricity/Applied Electricity;
- ability to use tools and equipment in the maintenance and repair of electrical/electronic devices;
- understanding of the principle of operation and the application of simple electrical/electronic devices;
- understanding of safe working procedures and safety precautions in domestic and industrial installation.
There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3 all of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 will be a composite paper to be taken at one sitting.
PAPER 1: will consist of fifty multiple-choice objective questions to be answered in 1 hour for 50 marks.
PAPER 2: will consist of three sections: Sections A, B and C as follows:
Section A will be compulsory for all candidates. It will consist of four questions out of which candidates will be required to answer any three.
Section B will be for candidates in Ghana only. It will consist of three questions out of which candidates will be required to answer two.
Section C will be for candidates in Nigeria, Sierra Leone and The Gambia only. It will also consist of three questions out of which candidates will be required to answer two.
Thus, candidates will be required to answer five questions in all. The paper will last 1 hour and carry 50 marks.
PAPER 3: will be a practical paper of two experiments both of which are to be carried out by candidates in 3 hours for 100 marks.
(For all candidates)
1. DIRECT CURRENT CIRCUIT THEORY
Structure of matter
Conductors and insulators.
Ohm’s law and Kirchhoff’s laws
Power and energy
2. MAGNETIC FIELD AND ELECTROMAGNETISM
Fundamentals of magnetism
Concept of Electric field
Self and Mutual Induction
3. MEASURING INSTRUMENTS
4. DIGITAL ELECTRONICS
5. ALTERNATING CURRENT CIRCUIT THEORY
Generation of e.m.f. in a single turn coil
Types of transformer
Principles of operation of a transformer
Losses and temperature rise in transformers
Efficiency of transformers
Cooling of transformers
7. POWER SUPPLY
Power supply units
8. ELECTRICAL MACHINES
A.C. motors (Single phase)
A.C. motors (Three phase)
9. ELECTRICAL ENERGY SUPPLY
10. ELECTRICAL WIRING
Maintenance, Fault diagnosis and Repairs
Testing of an installation
General Workshop Safety
Qualitative treatment of the structure of atoms in relation to electric current.
Types of resistors.
Resistor colour code.
Resistors in series and parallel.
Power rating of resistors.
Definition, examples and characteristics.
Qualitative treatments only.
Treatment should include calculations.
Types of magnet.
Magnetic properties of materials: magnetic flux, magnetic flux density, permeability, magnetomotive force and reluctance.
Electric field and properties: electric flux, electric flux density, electric field strength, permittivity and dielectric constant, potential gradient.
Comparison between magnetic and electric circuits
Types of capacitor.
Capacitance and dielectric.
Charge on capacitor, relationship between charge and applied voltage of a capacitor.
Application of capacitors.
Series and parallel connection.
Energy stored in a capacitor
(E = QV= CV2): simple calculations.
Magnetic field around a current-carrying conductor.
Fleming’s Right Hand Rule
Force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field (F = BILsin).
Lenz’s law and Faradays law.
Emf induced in a coil (E = BLVsin)
Simple calculations involving force and
Qualitative treatment of self and mutual induction.
Energy stored in a coil (E = LI2).
Application of electromagnetism as found in electric bell, security alarm system, solenoid, loudspeaker, buzzer, moving-coil instruments etc.
Construction, advantages and disadvantages.
Conversion of moving-coil instrument to ammeter and voltmeter.
Calculations of shunts and multipliers.
Construction, principles of operation, advantages and disadvantages.
Multimeter, voltmeter, ammeter etc.
Advantages and disadvantages.
Conversion of decimal numbers to binary numbers and vice versa.
Series connection of switches – AND
gate, parallel connection of switches – OR gate and inverter – NOT gate.
Truth table for logic gates.
General symbols for AND, OR, NOT, NAND and NOR gates.
Plotting of labelled sinusoidal waveform for a complete cycle.
A.C quantities (r.m.s., peak and average values, form factor, cycle, period and frequency)
Solution of problems involving RL, RC and RLC series circuits.
Conditions for resonance.
Phasor diagram of series resonance.
Type based on (i) construction (shell and core) and (ii) function (current and voltage).
Operation and transformation ratio
Transformer losses (copper and iron)
Effect of losses and temperature rise in a transformer. Qualitative treatment only.
Losses and efficiency of transformer
Methods of cooling.
Need for cooling.
Power supply units: dry cell, solar cell, cadium cell and accumulator.
Block diagram of d.c. power supply.
Functions of blocks of power supply.
Half-wave and full-wave rectifications.
Filtration and stabilization.
Types of single phase motor: split-phase, capacitor-start, capacitor-run.
Application of single-phase motors.
Principles of operation, parts and types.
Relationship of speed, number of poles and frequency
f = (Hz)
Principles of operation, parts, type and application
Methods of starting: direct-on-line, star delta and auto transformer.
Principles of operation, parts and methods of
connecting field windings.
Principles of operation, parts, types (shunt, compound, series) and application.
Methods of generating electrical power: diesel engine, steam engine, hydro-electric, nuclear, gas turbine.
Types of wiring: surface, conduit, trunking, ducting.
Selection of materials, tools and accessories.
Application of IEE wiring regulation regarding domestic installation.
Cables and accessories.
Current-carrying capacity of cable.
Wiring of lighting and socket outlets and connection of plugs.
Conduit, surface, trunking and ducting installations.
Fuses and circuit breakers
Discrimination of protective devices
Reasons for earthing.
Methods of earthing.
Earth loop impedance.
Types of fault: short circuit, open circuit and earth leakage.
Methods of diagnosing and repair of faults in an installation and equipment such as
fluorescent fitting, electric iron, electric fan, blender etc.
Continuity test, insulation resistance test, earth leakage test and polarity test.
Application of electrical safety regulations.
(For candidates in Ghana only)
11. ELECTRON EMISSION
Cathode Ray Tube(CRT)
Methods of emitting electrons: Thermionic emission, photo emission, secondary emission and field emission.
Functions of electrodes, parameters and application.
Functions of electrodes in CRT.
Properties of semiconductor materials. Differences between n-type and p-type semiconductor materials.
PN junction diode.
Forward and reverse bias for a pn junction diode.
Characteristics of a pn diode.
Application of pn junction diode.
Bipolar transistor: two pn junction devices (npn and pnp).
Configuration of bipolar transistor: CC, CB and CE.
Principles of operation and mode of connection of the three configurations of a transistor.
Characteristics of an npn transistor (common emitter).
Unipolar transistor: p-channel and n-channel of field effect transistor (JFET).
Principles of operation of JFET.
Semiconductor devices and their application: diac, triac, SCR, LED and zener diode.
Application of a photo transistor
Integrated circuits: simple integrated circuits and their uses.
Characteristics of radio waves.
Amplitude and frequency modulation and their waveforms.
Advantages of frequency modulation (F.M.) over amplitude modulation (A.M.).
Classifications: class A, class B, class AB and class C.
Application and efficiency of an amplifier.
Properties and construction of an ideal operational amplifier.
Inverting and non-inverting op-amp.
(For candidates in Nigeria, Sierra Leone and The Gambia)
14. ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION
15. MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR OF VARIOUS ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES
Maintenance and repair of electrical appliances
Layout diagram of high voltage overhead transmission system.
Treatment of main components (towers, insulators and conductors) and functions. Detailed treatment of components not required.
Operating voltage levels for transmission lines (132 kV and 330 kV) and the need for high voltage system should be emphasized.
Layout diagram and main components of electricity distribution.
Functions of substation components (transformers, feeders etc.)
Types (predictive, preventive and corrective)
Common faults that occur in electrical appliances (blender, electric iron, electric kettle, toaster, fluorescent lamps etc) such as short circuit, open circuit, earth fault etc.