Tourism Waec Syllabus 2021/2022

Below is this year’s WAEC syllabus for  Tourism. Note that this syllabus is for both Internal and external candidates.

WAEC Syllabus


The syllabus is designed to evaluate the candidates’ knowledge and skills in the potentials available in the tourism industry. The syllabus is based on the assumption that not less than three teaching periods or 2 hours per week will be allocated to the subject during the senior secondary school course.


The examination will test candidates’ ability to:

  • explain the concepts associated with tourism activities such as tourism, tourist, tourist attraction, tour operation, excursion, travel agency etc;
  • acquire knowledge of tourist attraction centres and their locations;
  • understand the financial, social, and developmental benefits of tourism to a nation;
  • explain the tourism and cultural festivals of a nation;
  • acquire the basic knowledge of the operations of a travel agency and tour businesses;
  • understand the roles and functions of public and private agencies in tourism;
  • develop skills in tourism entrepreneurship.


The students should be exposed to fieldwork through excursions to tourism industry sites such as airports, seaports, beaches, landforms, game reserves, national parks, museums, hotels, tour agencies, etc on which they should be examined as part of their continuous assessment in schools.

The scores for the fieldwork should account for 40 percent of the total continuous assessment scores of the students that will be forwarded to the examining body.


The subject will be examined as a composite paper made up of two papers-papers 1 & 2 to be answered in 2 hours 30 minutes.

Paper1: will comprise 40 multiple choice questions drawn to cover the entire syllabus.

Candidates will be required to answer all the questions in 40 minutes for 40 marks.


Paper 2: will consist of two Sections, A and B.

Section A: will consist of ten restricted-response essay questions, all of which must be answered for  40 marks. Candidates are advised not to spend more than 50 minutes on this section.

Section B: will consist of 5 essay type questions of which candidates will be expected to answer any 3 questions only for 60 marks in one hour.










History of tourism


Types of tourism


Tourism and travel business





Components of tourism


Tourist product



Tourist attractions in a nation






Tourism statistics







Benefits of tourism













Definition of tourism, tourist, visitor, tour, operation, excursion, recreation, leisure, hospitality, travel etc.


Scope of tourism


History of tourism


Types of tourism( domestic, international)


Forms of tourism:

Incoming/inbound, out-coming /outbound, international, domestic, long       haul, short haul, business, eco\environmental, cultural, religious/mistrial, sport, youth.


Components: attraction, accessibility, amenities.


Definition of tourist product

Characteristics of tourist products (heterogeneous, intangible, immovable)


Tourist attractions and their locations:

–          natural(national parks, scenic features, beaches, coasts, landforms etc)

–          man-made( monuments, museums, palaces etc)

–          social cultural( historical monuments, festivals, carnivals, sports etc)

Meaning of tourism statistics

–          inflow(arrival)

–          outflow(departure)

–          expenditure pattern

–          data collection

–          importance of tourism statistics


Economic benefits:

–          financial

–          taxes

–          levies

–          balance of payments

–          foreign exchange earnings etc

Social benefits:

–          cultural understanding

–          job creation

–          international co-operation
















Festivals and heritages in a nation



















Reasons for travel













Developmental benefits:

(a)    infrastructure

–          road

–          light

–          water

–          communication

(b)   superstructure

–          buildings

–          flyovers

(c ) rural development

–          preserves nature

–          use of land


Festivals in Nigeria:

–          Argungu International Fishing Festival

–          Oshogbo International Festival

–          New yam festival

–          Shao mass wedding

–          Sharo festival

–          Fare Wrestling Festival etc


Heritages in a nation

–          Sakur world heritage site

–          Museums and monument

–          Art galleries

–          Museums

–          Palaces

–          Gidan Makama

–          Shrines







Why people travel

Physiological factors:

–          visit to friends and relations

–          holidays

–          health

Economic factors:

–          business\shopping

–          conference\meetings

–          trade fare\exhibition

Social factors:

–          religion

–          sports

–          beautiful natural sceneries







Travel agency business

















Tour operating business














Support services










–          fashion fare

–          education

–          self esteem


Meaning of travel agency/agent

The roles/functions of a travel agent

–          reservation

–          ticketing

–          visa procurement

–          foreign exchange procurement etc

Qualities of a travel agent

–          resourcefulness

–          marketing skills

–          honesty /integrity

–          good communication skills

–          timeliness

–          vision

–          managerial ability

–          good understanding of ICT

–          creativity etc


Definition/ meaning of tour operator

Roles of a tour operator

–          packaging

–          marketing

–          executing

Qualities of a tour operator

–          honesty

–          good public relations

–          good marketing skills

–          good financial standing

–          good knowledge of the environment

–          innovativeness

–          good understanding of ICT etc


Support groups in travel business:

(i)                 financial support

insurance, banking, bureau de change

(ii)               transport facilities/

car hire services

(iii)             souvenir shops e.g. local crafts etc

(iv)             accommodation\hotel and catering services

(v)               health services e.g. first aid, clinics, hospitals etc

(vi)             security services



CONTENTS                      NOTES
Public agencies in tourism













Private agencies in tourism














Tourism marketing


Identification and roles of public agencies in tourism

(a)    (i) Federal Ministry of Tourism, Culture and National Orientation

(b)   State Tourism Boards

(c)    Local Government Tourism Committees

(d)   Parastatals

–          Nigerian Tourism Development Corporation

(NTDC)- policy implementation

–          National Institute for Hospitality and Tourism              (NIHOTOUR) Manpower development

–          National Commission for Museums and Monuments       (NCMM) Preservation of heritages


Identification and roles of private tourism agencies in Nigeria

(a)    Federation of Tourism Association of Nigeria(FTAN)- umbrella body for all private tourism agencies in Nigeria

(b)   National Association of Nigeria Travel Agencies(NANTA)- regulates travel agencies

(c)    Association of Nigerian Journalists and Writers on Tourism(ANTWT)-writes on tourism issues in national dailies and tourism magazines

(d)   National Association of Tour Operators(NATOP)- regulates tour operating businesses

(e)    Nigerian Hotels Association(NHA)

(f)    Hospitality and Tourism Management Association of Nigeria (HATMAN)- umbrella body for all hospitality and tourism practitioners

Meaning of tourism marketing

Tourism marketing strategies:

–          segmentation

–          mass marketing

–          niche marketing(new emerging markets)

Marketing tools in tourism

(a)    electronic media

–          television

–          radio

(b)   print media

–          newspapers

–          magazines

–          journals

–          publications

(c)    fairs and exhibitions

–          local fairs

–          international fairs

(d)   e-tourism

–          internet services

–          e-banking

–          e-reservation

–          electronic billboard


Entrepreneurship in tourism














Service delivery in tourism






Skill acquisition

Meaning of entrepreneurship

Meaning of cottage industries

Examples of cottage industries:

Leather works, ceramics and pottery, bread making, tie and dye, hair        weaving, painting, cloth weaving, raffia weaving etc

Items produced in cottage industries:

–          shoes, bags, wallet, belts etc.

–          water pots, cooking pots, wall tiles, floor tiles etc.

–          beads, ornaments, earrings etc.

–          clothes, adire, kampalla etc.

–          Jamaica beads, Ghana beads,chuku etc.

–          Akwa-ocha, aso ofi, aso oke, akwete etc.

–          Cane chairs, broom, raffia beds etc.


Meaning of service delivery

Service delivery in tourism:

–          tour guards, ticket retailers, cooks waiters, photographers, cultural dancers, drivers, game guards, reservation officers etc.


Definition of skills

Skill acquisition centres in a nation:

–          Small and Medium Enterprise Development Agency of Nigeria(SMEDAN)

–          National Directorate of Employment(NDE)

–          National Institute for Hospitality and Tourism (NIHOTOUR)

–          National Institute for Cultural Orientation (NICO)

–          Ushafa Pottery Centre etc



Brian Boniface and Christopher Cooper (2001)         The Geography of Travel and Tourism, 3rd Edition, Published by Butterworth-Henneiman. London

Clins Cooper, John Fletcher, Alam Fyall, David Gilbert and Stephen Wallhill (2009) Tourism Principle and Practice, 2nd Edition, Published by Pehentice Hall.London.

Jeanne Semer Purzycki (2000)  Travel Vision: A Practical Guide for the Travel, Tourism and Hospitality Industry, Published by Prechentice Hall.

John Hibbs (2000)       An Introduction to Transport Studies, 3rd Edition, Published by Kogan Yak.

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