- Social Science is the field of Science concerned with the study of the social life of human groups and the human society in general. It could also be defined as any discipline or branch of science that deals with the socio cultural aspects of human behaviour.
- Social science also involves the study of how groups of people behave, often in an effort to predict how they will behave in the future.
- Management Science (MS), otherwise known as ‘Operations Research’ or ‘Operational Research’ in certain parts of the world such as the US, Canada and the UK, is simply the application of scientific research-based principles, strategies, and analytical methods to improve an organisation’s ability to enact rational and meaningful management decisions by arriving at solutions to complex business problems.
- They measure the social developments of the society and find the emerging drawbacks too. The work of social science is to watch where the society has been heading and what more can be done to benefit the entire race.
- They help the government to manage the economy and avoid inflation and unemployment.
- Governments through the development of social science policies provide for the betterment of their citizens and the maintenance of a stable society composed of healthy, educated and a contented population.
FIELDS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES
- The following are the fields in Social Sciences:
- International Relations
- Political Science and Administration
- Library science, etc.
- Anthropology is the study of humans, past and present. To understand the full sweep and complexity of cultures across all of human history, anthropology draws and builds upon knowledge from the social and biological sciences as well as the humanities and physical sciences. A central concern of anthropologists is the application of knowledge to the solution of human problems. Historically, anthropologists in the United States have been trained in one of four areas: sociocultural anthropology, biological/physical anthropology, archaeology, and linguistics. Anthropologists often integrate the perspectives of several of these areas into their research, teaching, and professional lives.
- Sociocultural Anthropology: Sociocultural anthropologists examine social patterns and practices across cultures, with a special interest in how people live in particular places and how they organise, govern, and create meaning. A hallmark of sociocultural anthropology is its concern with similarities and differences, both within and among societies, and its attention to race, sexuality, class, gender, and nationality. Research in sociocultural anthropology is distinguished by its emphasis on participant observation, which involves placing oneself in the research context for extended periods of time to gain a first-hand sense of how local knowledge is put to work in grappling with practical problems of everyday life and with basic philosophical problems of knowledge, truth, power, and justice. Topics of concern to sociocultural anthropologists include such areas as health, work, ecology and environment, education, agriculture and development, and social change.
- Biological (or Physical) Anthropology: Biological anthropologists seek to understand how humans adapt to diverse environments, how biological and cultural processes work together to shape growth, development and behaviour, and what causes disease and early death. In addition, they are interested in human biological origins, evolution and variation. They give primary attention to investigating questions having to do with evolutionary theory, our place in nature, adaptation and human biological variation. To understand these processes, biological anthropologists study other primates (primatology), the fossil record (paleoanthropology), prehistoric people (bioarchaeology), and the biology (e.g., health, cognition, hormones, growth and development) and genetics of living populations.
- Archaeology: Archaeologists study past peoples and cultures, from the deepest prehistory to the recent past, through the analysis of material remains, ranging from artifacts and evidence of past environments to architecture and landscapes. Material evidence, such as pottery, stone tools, animal bone, and remains of structures, is examined within the context of theoretical paradigms, to address such topics as the formation of social groupings, ideologies, subsistence patterns, and interaction with the environment. Like other areas of anthropology, archaeology is a comparative discipline; it assumes basic human continuities over time and place, but also recognizes that every society is the product of its own particular history and that within every society there are commonalities as well as variation.
- Linguistic Anthropology: Linguistic anthropology is the comparative study of ways in which language reflects and influences social life. It explores the many ways in which language practices define patterns of communication, formulate categories of social identity and group membership, organize large-scale cultural beliefs and ideologies, and, in conjunction with other forms of meaning-making, equip people with common cultural representations of their natural and social worlds. Linguistic anthropology shares with anthropology in general a concern to understand power, inequality, and social change, particularly as these are constructed and represented through language and discourse.
- Addressing complex questions, such as human origins, the past and contemporary spread and treatment of infectious disease, or globalisation, requires synthesizing information from all four subfields. Anthropologists are highly specialized in our research interests, yet we remain generalists in our observations of the human condition and we advocate for a public anthropology that is committed to bringing knowledge to broad audiences. Anthropologists collaborate closely with people whose cultural patterns and processes we seek to understand or whose living conditions require amelioration. Collaboration helps bridge social distances and gives greater voice to the people whose cultures and behaviours anthropologists study, enabling them to represent themselves in their own words. An engaged anthropology is committed to supporting social change efforts that arise from the interaction between community goals and anthropological research. Because the study of people, past and present, requires respect for the diversity of individuals, cultures, societies, and knowledge systems, anthropologists are expected to adhere to a strong code of professional ethics.
CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN ANTHROPOLOGY
- Anthropologists are employed in a number of different sectors, from colleges and universities to government agencies, NGOs, businesses, and health and human services. Within the university, they teach undergraduate and graduate anthropology, and many offer anthropology courses in other departments and professional schools such as business, education, design, and public health. Anthropologists contribute significantly to interdisciplinary fields such as international studies and ethnic and gender studies, and some work in academic research centres.
- Outside the university, anthropologists work in government agencies, private businesses, community organisations, museums, independent research institutes, service organisations, the media; and others work as independent consultants and research staff for agencies such as the Centres for Disease Control, UNESCO, the World Health Organisation (WHO), and the World Bank. More than half of all anthropologists now work in organisations outside the university.
- Their work may involve building research partnerships, assessing economic needs, evaluating policies, developing new educational programs, recording little-known community histories, providing health services, and other socially relevant activities. You will find anthropologists addressing social and cultural consequences of natural disasters, equitable access to limited resources, and human rights at the global level.
- Economics is the social science that analyses the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Political economy was the earlier name for the subject, but economists in the latter 19th century suggested ‘economics’ as a shorter term for ‘economic science’. Economic analysis may be applied throughout society, as in business, finance, health care, and government, but also to such diverse subjects as crime, education, the family, law, politics, religion, social institutions, war and science.
BRANCHES OF ECONOMICS
- The branch of economics that analyses the market behaviour of individual consumers and firms in an attempt to understand the decision-making process of firms and households. It is concerned with the interaction between individual buyers and sellers and the factors that influence the choices made by buyers and sellers. In particular, microeconomics focuses on patterns of supply and demand and the determination of price and output in individual markets (e.g. garri industry). | awajis.com
- Macroeconomics: Macroeconomics examines the economy as a whole to explain broad aggregates and their interactions International Economics: International trade studies determinants of goods-and-services flows across international boundaries.
- Energy/Petroleum Economics:
- Monetary Economics
CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN ECONOMICS
- Market Analyst
- Business Manager
- Bank Officer
- Urban/Regional Planner
- Purchasing Agent
- Supply-chain Analyst
- Research Assistant
- Budget Analyst
- Pricing Analyst
- Insurance Analyst
- Policy Analyst
- Business Forecaster
- Real Estate Appraiser
- Credit Analyst
- Securities Broker
- Investment Analyst
- Loan Officer
- Economic advisers and Counsellors
- Real Estate Agent
EMPLOYERS OF ECONOMISTS
- Accounting Firms
- Brokerage Firms
- Insurance Companies
- Chambers of Commerce
- Market Research Companies
- Trade Associations
- Import/Export Firms
- Consulting Firms
- National Bureau of Statistics
- General Accounting Office
- State/County Budget Agencies
- Census Board
- Offices of Economic Analysis
- Securities and Exchange Commission etc.
- Psychology is the study of the mind, partly via the study of behaviour, grounded in science. Its immediate goal is to understand individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases. For many, the ultimate goal of psychology is to benefit society. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist, and can be classified as a social scientist, behavioral scientist, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while also exploring the physiological and neurobiological processes that underlie certain functions and behaviors.
- Psychologists explore such concepts as perception, cognition, attention, emotion, phenomenology, motivation, brain functioning, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships. Some, especially depth psychologists, also consider the unconscious mind
BRANCHES OF PSYCHOLOGY
- Abnormal Psychology
- Behavioral Psychology
- Cross-Cultural Psychology
- Forensic Psychology
- Clinical Psychology
- Cognitive Psychology
- Health Psychology
- Industrial Organisational Psychology
- Human Factors Psychology
- Comparative Psychology
- Developmental Psychology
- Educational Psychology
- Personality Psychology
- Social Psychology
- Sports Psychology
- Positive Psychology
CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN PSYCHOLOGY
- School Psychologist
- Forensic Counsellor
- Engineering Counsellor
- Sports Counsellor
- Industrial/Organisational Counsellor
- Genetics Counsellor
- Social Services and Mental Health
- Career or Vocational Counsellor etc.
- English Language
- Agricultural Science
- English Language
- Any of Economics , Commerce or Agricultural sciences
DURATION OF COURSE
- Usually all social science courses are within four years
- Sociology is the scientific study of society. It is a social science which uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about human social activity. For many sociologists the goal is to conduct research which may be applied directly to social policy and welfare, while others focus primarily on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter ranges from the micro level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and the social structure.
- The traditional focuses of sociology have included social stratification, social class, social mobility, religion, secularisation, law, and deviance. As all spheres of human activity are affected by the interplay between social structure and individual agency, sociology has gradually expanded its focus to further subjects, such as health, medical, military and penal institutions, the Internet, and the role of social activity in the development of scientific knowledge.
BRANCHES OF SOCIOLOGY
- Social organisation is the study of the various institutions, social groups, social stratification, social mobility, bureaucracy, ethnic groups and relations, and other similar subjects like family, education, politics, religion, economy, and so on and so forth.
- Social psychology is the study of human nature as an outcome of group life, social attitudes, collective behavior, and personality formation. It deals with group life and the individual’s traits, attitudes, beliefs as influenced by group life, and it views man with reference to group life.
- Social change and disorganisation is the study of the change in culture and social relations and the disruption that may occur in society, and it deals with the study of such current problems in society such as juvenile delinquency, criminality, drug addiction, family conflicts, divorce, population problems, and other similar subjects.
- Human ecology deals with the nature and behavior of a given population and its relationships to the group’s present social institutions. For instance, studies of this kind have shown the prevalence of mental illness, criminality, delinquencies, prostitution, and drug addiction in urban centers and other highly developed places.
- Population or demography is the study of population number, composition, change, and quality as they influence the economic, political, and social system.
- Sociological theory and method is concerned with the applicability and usefulness of the principles and theories of group life as bases for the regulation of man’s environment, and includes theory building and testing as bases for the prediction and control of man’s social environment.
- Applied sociology utilizes the findings of pure sociological research in various fields such as criminology, social work, community development, education, industrial relations, marriage, ethnic relations, family counseling, and other aspects and problems of daily life.
CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN SOCIOLOGY
- Admissions Counsellor
- Adoption Agent
- Advertising Manager
- ˜Alcohol and Drug Case Worker
- Career Services Counsellor
- Child Welfare Officer
- City Planner
- Community Relations Director
- Consumer Advocate
- Correctional Case Worker
- Corrections Officer
- Customer Relations
- Day Care Worker
- Delinquency Counsellor
- Demographic Analyst
- Foster Care Worker
- Government Worker
- Human Resources Administrator
- Industrial Sociologist
- Job Analyst
- Labour Force and Manpower
- Labour Relations Representative
- Marriage and Family Therapist
- Medical Social Worker
- Mental Health Agent
- Motivational Speaker
- Personnel Interviewer
- Policy Analyst
- Political Systems Researcher
- Population Specialist
- Public Health Statistician
- Public Relations Specialist
- Public Service Worker
- Rehabilitation Counsellor
- Research Analyst
- Research Assistant
- Research Director
- Sales Representative
- School Counsellor
- Secret Service Agent
- Social Scientist
- Social Welfare Examiner
- Social Worker
- Statistical Analyst
- Urban Planner
- Welfare Counsellor
- International relations (IR) or International studies (IS) represents the study of foreign affairs and global issues among states within the international system, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organisations (IGOs),non-governmental organizations (NGOs), international nongovernmental organisations (INGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs).
- International relations make globalisation possible.
- *Globalisation refers to the trend toward countries joining together economically, through education, society and politics, and viewing themselves not only through their national identity but also as part of the world as a whole.
CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
- Archivist: Archivists preserve records and documents that are deemed to have potential value and importance. Archivists usually work for colleges and universities, corporations, governments, museums and other institutions.
- International Relations Specialist
- Humanitarian Relief worker
- Cross Cultural Trainer
- Public Affairs Coordinator
- Foreign Service Official
- College/University International Student Adviser
- Foreign Affairs Analyst
- Foreign Affairs Specialist
- Foreign Service Officer
- Immigration Specialist
- Intelligence Specialist
- Language Specialist
- Market Research Analyst
- Political science is a social science discipline concerned with the study of the state, government and politics. Aristotle defined it as the study of the state. It deals extensively with the theory and practice of politics, and the analysis of political systems and political behavior. Political scientists “see themselves engaged in revealing the relationships underlying political events and conditions. And from these revelations they attempt to construct general principles about the way the world of politics works.” Political science intersects with other fields; including anthropology, public policy, national politics, economics, international relations, comparative politics, psychology, sociology, history, law, and political theory.
BRANCHES OF POLITICAL SCIENCE
- Political Philosophy: It is the reasoning for an absolute normative government, laws and similar questions and their distinctive characteristics, in other words, it is the quest for the most appropriate structure for the State.
- Comparative Politics: It is the science of comparison and teaching of different types of constitutions, political actors, legislature and associated fields, all of them from an intrastate perspective.
- Public Administration: is an academic discipline that studies this implementation and that prepares civil servants for this work. As a “field of inquiry with a diverse scope its fundamental goal is to advance management and policies so that government can function.
- International Relations: deals with the interaction between nation-states as well as intergovernmental and transnational organisations.
CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICAL SCIENCE
- Civil/Public Service
- House of Representative/House of Senate
- Local Government official
- Political Party Organiser
- Policy Analyst
- Public Budgeting
- Human Resource Administrators
- Census Managers
- Cabinet Secretaries
- House of Commons Library Clerk
- Civil Service Research Posts
- Academic Teaching and Research
- Teacher/Lecturer | awajis.com/jamb/
- Labour Policy Directorate
- Trades unions
- Political Party Agent
- Public Affairs Consultant
- Political Journalist
- Geography studies the earth and its land, features, inhabitants, and phenomena.
BRANCHES OF GEOGRAPHY
- Physical geography examines the physical aspects of a region, including its land forms, climates, soils, vegetation, water, plants, and animals.
- Cultural geography analyses the spatial implications of human activities within a given area, including its economic activities, social characteristics, and political organisation. This is further classified on the basis of their specific focus. For example, economic geography studies the distribution of resources and economic activities. Political geography is concerned with the relationship of geography to political phenomena. Urban and transportation geography studies cities and metropolitan areas. Regional geography studies the physical, economic, political, and cultural characteristics of regions ranging in size from a congressional district to entire continents. Medical geography investigates healthcare delivery systems, epidemiology (the study of the causes and control of epidemics), and the effect of the environment on health and survey and mapping technicians (who), urban and regional planners (who help to decide on and evaluate the locations of building and roads and other aspects of physical society), and geoscientists.
CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN GEOGRAPHY
- Urban Planner/Community Development: Geography is a natural tie-in with urban or city planning. City planners work on zoning, land use, and new developments, from a gas station renovation to the development of whole new sections of urban area. You’ll work with individual property owners, developers, and other officials. If you’re interested in this area, be sure to take urban geography and urban planning classes. An internship with a city planning agency is essential experience for this type of work.
- Cartographer/Mapping Technicians: Geographers develop maps and other location-based information. The news media, book publishers, atlas publishers, government agencies and others are looking for cartographers to help produce maps.
- Geographic Information System (GIS) Specialist: Governments, agencies and private groups are often in need of experienced GIS professionals. Coursework and internships in GIS are especially important. Computer programming or engineering skills are very helpful in this arena – the more about computers and languages you know, the better off you are.
- Climatologist: Climatologists study climate change, climate variability, and the effects of climate on the biosphere. They use computers to predict the effect of weather or climate on the growth and development of grain, vegetables, fruit, and other crops.
- Surveyors: Surveyors measure distances, directions, and angles between points on, above, and below the Earth’s surface. In the field, they select known survey reference points and determine the precise location of important features in the survey area using specialised equipment. Surveyors also research legal records, look for evidence of previous boundaries, and analyse data to determine the location of boundary lines. They are sometimes called to provide expert testimony in court regarding their work or the work of other surveyors. Surveyors also record their results, verify the accuracy of data, and prepare plots, maps, and reports.
- Photogrammetrists: Photogrammetry is a type of remote sensing, or gathering information about a site without actually coming in contact with it. Photogrammetrists take aerial photos and use them to create detailed maps of large areas in a very short time and for land inaccessible on foot.
- Environmental Management
- Transportation management etc
- Post Graduate Diploma (PGD): A postgraduate diploma is a qualification awarded typically after a bachelor’s degree.
- Master’s degree (MA): A master’s degree is an academic degree granted to individuals who have undergone study demonstrating a mastery or high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice.
- Doctor of Philosophy: Abbreviated Ph.D., for the Latin philosophiæ doctor, meaning “teacher of philosophy“. This is an advanced academic degree awarded by universities. It is the highest degree one can earn. The major requirement is the possession of a Master’s degree.
- Other certifications: This depends on the course of study.
|CERTIFICATION||COURSE OF STUDY||WEBSITE|
|Institute of Chartered Economists of Nigeria.||Economics||http://www.icennig.org/index.php|
|African Institute for Applied Economics.||Economics||www.aiae-nigeria.org|
|The Institute of Certified Geographers of Nigeria.||Geography||www.icgnig.org|
|Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research||Economics||www.niser.org|
|West African Institute for Financial and Economic Management||www.waifem,org|
|Nigeria Institution of Surveyors||Quantity Survey||http;//www.nis.org.ng/|